Ethnomusicology studies popular and traditional (folkloric) music as a cultural event (with its symbols and functions) and compares it with other music cultures. It emphasizes the musical performance and it uses specific units for its cpmparisons such as the study of the tonal and modal system, and its rhythms and systems of expression. This way, it approaches parametres such as the origen, musical change, music symbolism or other similar universal aspects.
On the other hand, it deals with the constructive technique of traditional music instruments of craftsmen making all these instrumnts object of ethnological investigation. They are classified into different types ( idiophones, membranophones, aerophones..) and its based on those instruments deeply rooted in each musical tradition (flutes, "txistu" (end-blown pipe), "dulzainas" (double-reed wind instrument), double clarinets, bag pipes...etc.) Once more we resort to relating word and graphic image.
Also, the history and evolution of musicians and traditional bands is dealt with, the analysis of its repertoire adn the genres they interpret. So, we can distinguish two types of testimonies: direct ones, musical interpretations, and the indirect ones, memories of the musician´s and band´s activities.